Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Creating Unlikable (Yet Compelling) Main Characters

By Janice Hardy, @Janice_Hardy

Most of the time the characters we create to tell our stories will be likable, but sometimes a story requires a less than endearing protagonist. Today, let's dip into the mailbag for a question about dealing with an unlikable character.
I was wondering about main characters with unlikable personalities? I mean, not classy unlikable, or super smart bastard like Walter White or Dr House or Dexter or the BBC Sherlock (man, there are so many of them! and all males) but more like my main character who is kind of gross, brutal and not particularly clever, despite some interesting strengths and a funny quick response. Also her love interest is a lot like her and not even good looking.

Of course this is all going to change through the story, but what if the reader dislikes her in the first place? Is there a way to make them root for her without compromising the personality she needs to start the stor
y with, in order to improve along with her (mis)adventures?
The answer is in your question--each of the characters you mentioned have something compelling about them that makes them interesting to watch, even when they're not being very nice. Their compelling trait is also directly connected to the plot of the show.

Dr. House is Sherlock Holmes in a medical setting. House = Homes. Wilson = Watson. Both are drug addicts and brilliant "detectives" solving cases no one else can figure out by deductive reasoning. Being clever and seeing what no one else can see is what the character is about, and part of the fun of watching them is to see if you can figure it out first. To beat them to the punch. There's no sympathy for a character like this, they're more of a spectacle for the reader/viewer.

Dexter is a slightly different type of unlikable, because even though he's a serial killer, he's trying to do the right thing. He's sympathetic because he's fighting his dark nature and riding the world of murderers instead of preying on innocents. Readers want to see him succeed and overcome his darkness.

(Here's more on how to make a depressed character likable)

Tim Dorsey writes about a serial killer named Serge A. Storms who is funny and creative in how he kills and why. He's also a trivia nut who loves Florida history, and is just as likely to give you a tour as kill you. Sure, he might kill his neighbor for being too loud, but he'll crack you up as he does it.

Keys to Making an Unlikable Character Work

Characters don't need every one of these traits, these are just elements typically found with an unlikable, yet compelling character. Mix and match or use what works for your story and character.

1. They're larger than life.

The "special trait" that makes them compelling also makes them different and not the average Joe. Because of this larger-than-life trait, they can get away with things an ordinary person can't, because they bring something unique to their work, life, etc.

(Here's more on creating character archetypes)

2. They're funny.

Make readers laugh and they'll forgive most anything. If the humor is connected to the unlikable trait, then you mix what readers don't like with what they love and they'll accept it even easier. Do it well enough, and they look forward to bad behavior because they know it'll create the humor.

3. They have a redeeming quality.

Something about this character is worth rooting for, and it's something readers can relate to. They love their mother and go to great lengths to protect or care for her, they always stop to help animals, they cook meals for the homeless--something.

(Here's more on writing scoundrels)

4. They want to become better people.

Readers love an underdog, and they'll give someone who is trying to improve a chance. The trick here is to show that the unlikable character wants to change, but it's outside forces or forces beyond their control (like Dexter) keeping them from doing so.

(Here's more on creating character arcs)

5. They're not as bad as everyone else.

Dark protagonists are great examples here. Even though they're bad, the rest of the characters are so much worse. Show an unlikable character in contrast to how evil they could be, and that character becomes less "bad" by association.

6. They're fascinating.

We're often drawn to what scares us and what we don't understand, so characters who behave in ways that are appalling or frightening to us also fascinate us. How did this person get this way? Will they really do the terrible things they talk about? We want to know, even when we don't want to look.

7. They have someone likeable who likes them.

There's an actor who has a terrible reputation, is usually arrogant in interviews, and typically comes across as a real jerk. He's married to a woman who is sweet, smart, funny, and terribly likable, so it makes you re-evaluate him as a person. If she likes him, there has to be something worth liking there. The same can work for giving your unlikable character a wonderful best friend. However--you also have to show why these two are friends.

(Here's more on why protagonists need friends)

8. What they want is worth pursuing.

For me, this is the foundation of making an unlikable character worth reading about. If readers care about the resolution of the story--be it an intriguing plot, a hope the character learns a grows, a wonder if they get caught, a fascination with how things will turn out--then they'll keep reading regardless of how much they hate the character.

(Here's more on making readers care)

As for the original question...

If you have a main character who is "gross, brutal and not particularly clever," I think the keys to making her compelling to readers is likely going to be in the "some interesting strengths and a funny quick response," and her character arc.

If those strengths are ones that readers find intriguing and worth exploring, and her humor convinces readers to give her a chance, and her character arc shows she's going to overcome these faults in way they find compelling, then odds are you can get readers to stay with her.

I suspect the challenge here will be making readers care about the overall story to give the character a chance. They're probably not going to like her enough to want to see her succeed, so something else will have to hook them until she earns their trust.

Of course you could also employ any number of things on this list to nudge the story or character where they need to go.

Readers? How do you feel about unlikable characters? What makes you "like" one and keep reading? 

Find out more about characters and point of view in my book, Fixing Your Character & Point-of-View Problems.

Go step-by-step through revising character and character-related issues, such as two-dimensional characters, inconsistent points of view, too-much backstory, stale dialogue, didactic internalization, and lack of voice. Learn how to analyze your draft, spot any problems or weak areas, and fix those problems.

With clear and easy-to-understand examples, Fixing Your Character & Point-of-View Problems offers five self-guided workshops that target the common issues that make readers stop reading. It will help you:
  • Flesh out weak characters and build strong character arcs
  • Find the right amount of backstory to enhance, not bog down, your story
  • Determine the best point(s) of view and how to use them to your advantage
  • Eliminate empty dialogue and rambling internalization
  • Develop character voices and craft unique, individual characters 
Fixing Your Character & Point-of-View Problems starts every workshop with an analysis to pinpoint problem areas and offers multiple revision options in each area. You choose the options that best fit your writing process. It's an easy-to-follow guide to crafting compelling characters, solid points of view, and strong character voices readers will love.

Available in paperback and ebook formats.

Janice Hardy is the award-winning author of the teen fantasy trilogy The Healing Wars, including The Shifter, Blue Fire, and Darkfall from Balzer+Bray/Harper Collins. The Shifter, was chosen for the 2014 list of "Ten Books All Young Georgians Should Read" from the Georgia Center for the Book.

She also writes the Grace Harper urban fantasy series for adults under the name, J.T. Hardy.

When she's not writing novels, she's teaching other writers how to improve their craft. She's the founder of Fiction University and has written multiple books on writing.
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  1. Trying to think of any unlikeable characters that I end up liking. There is Jayne on Firefly. I think in his case it's the whole `trying to be better but doesn't know how.' It comes out a lot in the episode Jaynetown. Also, he cares about his mom so much he doesn't even notice how silly-looking the hat she sent him looks when he wears it.

    For me, the overall mood of the book has a lot to do with whether I'm willing to stick with a character. I had a hard time making it through H.G. Well's `Island of Dr. Moreu' because not only were all the characters unlikable, but I got the feeling that the writer didn't like them much himself. Now obviously there's something I'm missing since the book is a classic, but if a story is too cynical, I'll put it down rather than depress myself.

    1. Jayne is a great character. I also love the way he names his guns. I find I'm much more prone to give movie and TV characters a chance than novel characters. Maybe it's because my interaction with them is shorter?

      I agree about the mood or type of story. Personal taste has a lot to do with it as well. Some "mean guys" appeal to us more than others by how they're mean.

  2. I think we all have a dark side...but most of us don't act on those urges, so seeing a character who does what we can't makes them an eensy bit more likeable

    1. I can certainly live vicariously through some of my favorite nasty characters :)

  3. Interesting is more important than likeable. I've read many great books with protags I don't like, for instance the novels by Jean Genet >:)

    Cold As Heaven

    1. Interesting is always good. I think it also depends on the reader's mood. If I'm having a bad day I don't want an unlikable protagonist, I want someone fun to hang out with.

  4. These tips are GREAT! It immediately brings to mind one of my favorite authors, Rainy Kaye. One of the things I like about her is her ability to make an unlikable characters . . . awesome. (I’m not even sure if I can even call them unlikeable at that point). For example, Dimitri from Summoned. I never really thought about WHY he’s so likable (even though he’s sort of an anti-hero) but this post makes it clear. I think he hits all the checkmarks. Being a genie makes him larger than life, he’s HILARIOUS, he’s not all bad—I’m endeared by his clumsiness and he has a soft side, particularly for Syd—and he definitely wants to be a better person. He’s just not ABLE to because he can’t control that whole master-genie bond thing or his master keeps wishing for him to do unthinkable things. And by comparison to the read bad guys of the story, he’s a saint. Fascinating? Check. I really loved discovering what made him tick—outside of the bond. So, I don’t think I can really even add to your list. Dim is my favorite of all unlikable characters, and I think you pretty much covered every reason why—reasons I didn’t even realize. This post is SPOT on. I definitely need to read more of your articles (I’m a writer, too, not just a reader). Thanks for posting :) Sorry for going fan girl, too, but this post read like you write it about Dim LOL

    1. Aw, thanks! Fan girling is okay with me, it started my morning off with a smile! That sounds like an awesome character (and reminds me a little of Spike from Buffy the Vampire Slayer). It's the flaws and the struggles that really tug at our heartstrings and makes us care. Perfect can be so boring.

  5. Answering your question is forcing me to realize my predilection for bad guys... :P
    Loki from the Marvel movies is a good one. He's hurt, fighting for recognition, hilarious, *coughdreamycough*, capable (I think?) of doing good.

    Sherlock! Sociopathic jerk! I think the best illustration is the time he beat up the guy who hurt Mrs. Hudson. We've never cheered so much before for such dreadful abuse...

    Draco Malfoy in the last book or so turned into a character waaaay over his head, struggling to reach solid ground. Aww :(

    1. Bad guys have always been my favorites. I've been know to cry at the end of monster movies when the defeat the monster. The potentially redeemable ones---yummyness.

  6. Wow, thanks a lot for answering this question!
    You gave me plenty to think about, and good ideas to work with. You have no idea how grateful I feel.

  7. This is a great subject--and you've made some really important points. I do think your questioner was onto something when she pointed out most of the "unlikable" heroes are male. It's harder to get away with funny or quirky female characters these days, I fear.