By Janice Hardy, @Janice_Hardy
Basic scene structure says a scene can end in one of four ways. A yes, a no, a yes but there's a catch, or a no and it makes things worse. These are questions designed to move the story forward and advance the plot. Some work better than others, because they leave more room for things to happen and give you as the writer a place to go. If you always write scenes with yes or no answers, you might find yourself getting stuck, or making it too easy on your protagonist.
You can use this yes or no approach at the end of every scene, or you can layer it throughout the scene to keep the reader asking questions and being drawn more into what's happening. I'm going to use a movie as the example, but the same principles apply to novels. Movies are just easier to study since they're visual and more people have likely seen them.
A Trashy Question
In the movie, Star Wars, Luke Skywalker, Han Solo, Princess Leia and Chewbacca shoot their way through a wall and dive down into a a garbage masher on the detention level. Luke’s droids, C3PO and R2D2 are left behind on another level. This is a classic scene problem that leaves viewers with the question:
Will our heroes make it out of the garbage masher? Yes or no.
Everyone knows these are the heroes, so what are the odds that the answer is no? It would be a pretty short movie if that happened. So obviously the answer is yes, they will get out of garbage masher.
Kinda kills all the fun, huh?
Even if we don't know how they'll get out, there's nothing here to make us worry about them escaping. No matter how exciting the scene might be, it lacks real tension. What’s needed here is a yes, but there's a catch. Something that resolves the yes or no question, but also adds another layer to keep things interesting an unpredictable.
Enter the trash monster.
We meet him early on in the scene. A groan, a tentacle, a brush of something against Luke's legs, an eyestalk popping up out of the trash. This poses a new question:
Will the monster get anyone? Yes or no.
This could go either way, as it could work as merely a scare tactic or it could turn into something real. In this case it does become a problem, and Luke is grabbed and dragged under. Then tension goes up again, because while we know Luke will survive, we’re not sure if he’ll be injured. He could easily be hurt and the plot can still continue. We worry what will happen to him because the stakes are something that can actually happen. Now we have the question:
Will Han and Leia save Luke from the trash monster? Yes or no.
Again, the answer appears an obvious yes, but in this scene it's really a no. Luke isn't saved by his friends. They shoot at the monster, try to pry the tentacles off him, but fail. There's a loud bang and the monster lets go of him. This is what really saves him. So we're left with a few questions:
What was that noise? And why did the monster let go of Luke?
Neither are yes or no questions, and they add tension to the scene because expectations have now been challenged. We don't know what's going to happen, but it can't be good if it scared away something scary. Plus, our heroes still have the original problem of being stuck:
Can they get out before whatever scared the trash monster finds them? Yes or no.
The answer is no, because the garbage masher activates, and the walls slowly come toward our heroes. If the walls aren’t stopped, Luke and the others will be squashed like grapes. Getting out seems unlikely now, so the question is:
Will they stop the garbage masher before they get squished? Yes or no.
Again, an obvious yes, so something else has to happen to raise the tension again. Luke remembers the droids are still out there, so he calls them on the comlink. New question:
Will Luke reach the droids? Yes or no.
Another no, as the droids have hidden themselves away to avoid the stormtroopers, and C3PO left the comlink on the desk outside. This naturally leads to:
Will the stormtroopers find the droids or the comlink?
We have another unpredictable answer, though we're pretty sure the stormtroopers will find one of those two things. This works to raise the tension because the bad guys could conceivably find the comlink and "save" the heroes, then lock them up or send them to face the Big Bad Guy (Darth Vader). So yes, the stormtroopers find the droids, but no they don't find the comlink. But now the droids have to deal with stormtroopers:
Will they get caught by the stormtroopers? Yes or no.
No, they don't. C3PO talks his way past them, grabs the comlink and goes to the rendezvous point. But the answer to the previous "will reach the droids on the comlink" is back, because C3PO has turned it off. So we have a yes but there's a catch answer. Yes, but only after he's able to escape the stormtroopers and remembers to turn it back on. But from a viewer's perspective, the question is:
Will C3PO remember to turn it on before the others are squished? Yes or no.
The answer could go either way because there could be something else that saves our heroes. There are enough layers of problems now that what we thought was obvious might not be so obvious anymore. The droids are still probably the best bet for escape, but they have their own troubles. Maybe they're a red herring and our heroes will find something new to save them. Things are no longer predictable.
The droids discover Luke and the others aren't at the rendezvous point and finally call in. They learn that the heroes are in serious trouble. Now the question is:
Will R2D2 be able to shut down all the garbage mashers on the detention level? Yes or no.
Luke even screams this repeatedly into his comlink so we know without a doubt this is the thing to worry about and it has all come down to this moment.
What makes this interesting is that had it happened at the start, it wouldn’t have carried any more weight than our heroes being stuck in the garbage masher. Of course they'll stop the walls or the story ends. But by adding the other layers, we know that the trash monster must have a way out. He doesn’t get squished every time the trash does, so there’s a chance that our heroes might find his way in and out of there. They also have the walls to deal with, and they might find a way to stop them. And we have the possible capture of the on-their-own droids.
A lot is going on, and the outcome is a bit more uncertain.
We do know the heroes won’t die. We do know they’ll get out of the garbage masher somehow. But now there’s more uncertainty about how those things will unfold. Luke or someone else could still get hurt. The way out could lead to more danger, the droids could get captured (leading to more problems). Our heroes might even be captured. The questions now become, yes, they will get out but this will lead to more trouble, or no they won’t get out and something else will save them that might be worse than the trouble they’re in now. We're just not sure which so we keep watching.
When you’re plotting, think about the questions posed when your protagonist runs into trouble.
Is it just a simple yes or no question where the answer is clear, or are you adding layers to make the outcome uncertain? Are some of those questions answered with a no? Because you can defy expectations by having your protagonist fail. Failing can lead to more trouble and open up new avenues for the resolution of the scene. Problems early on can turn into possible solutions later.
Scene are more than just showing how one event unfolds. While you don't want to muck them up by adding too much for the sake of drama, adding multiple (and often connected) layers of problems and potential solutions can keep readers guessing about what will happen next--and give you more options for your story. Will the reader keep reading?
Do you like plotting with yes or no questions?
Planning Your Novel: Ideas and Structure, a series of self-guided workshops that help you turn your idea into a novel. It's also a great guide for revisions!
Hardy is the founder of Fiction University, and the author of the
teen fantasy trilogy The Healing Wars, where she tapped into her own
dark side to create a world where healing was dangerous, and those
with the best intentions often made the worst choices. Her novels
include The Shifter, (Picked as one of the 10 Books All Young Georgians Should Read, 2014) Blue Fire, and Darkfall from Balzer+Bray/Harper Collins. The first book in her Foundations of Fiction series, Planning Your Novel: Ideas and Structure is out now.
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